PGS Testing Improves IVF Success Rate – Know How
All the blogs on this website are intended to answer your toughest questions and offer relevant doubts based on scientific studies.
Dr. Namita Kotia has been practicing infertility treatment at Aastha Fertility Care since 2010, and during this time, she has helped around 2000+ couples become parents through IVF treatment and also other assisted reproductive technology (ART) methods like ICSI, IUI, GIFT, etc. Dr. Namita provides her patients with the best possible care and treatment options.
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) is IVF embryos are subjected to a generalised test that screens for aneuploid, number abnormalities, and general chromosome. PGS testing is necessary for IVF procedure because abnormalities in chromosome numbers can cause a decline in the success of IVF cycles, congenital disabilities, or miscarriages.
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Studies and data from fertility clinics have shown that the IVF success rate, when combined with PGS-tested embryos, was 69.1 percent compared to 41.7 percent in cases where the embryos were selected based on their morphology alone.
Aastha Fertility Center offers the best PGS testing procedure and delivers the highest success rate for IVF in Jaipur, India. Moreover, the centre is known to quote the best prices for their treatment, including health insurance coverage and other payment benefits that make the overall treatment bearable to all categories.
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Let’s Clear The Confusion Between PGD, PGS, And PGT
The difference between screening and diagnosis is that screening helps detect potential risks. It helps to detect diseases or issues earlier. Screening also provides supervision and reduces the risk of the disease. On the other hand, diagnosis helps confirm or eliminate potential results.
Likewise, we have differences between the PGD and PGS.
PGD is done when a doctor checks the patient’s DNA for specific abnormalities indicative of a genetic condition. At the same time, PGS is done to examine the embryo’s entire chromosome makeup to look for any chromosomal abnormalities. For example, extra or missing chromosomes.
Therefore, the genetic conditions discovered by PGS differ from PGD. Most patients who conceive using IVF-PGS don’t perform the diagnostic prenatal chromosomal testing.
PGS Testing Reviews
- Having been married for 17 years, Nazia (42), and Sultan (47), have a history of two miscarriages and four unsuccessful IVF treatments. With three simulations, we pooled eight embryos. These pooled embryos were subjected to PGS. PGS was done on these pooled embryos. Two embryos were implanted into Nazia after testing out normally.
The prayers of Nazia and Sultan were answered. Successful pregnancy resulted. They now own their genetic offspring.
- A 40-year-old woman failed two IUI attempts and two IVF cycles before becoming pregnant, which ended in a miscarriage. The first woman had a regular cycle and was 40 years old. She had never previously given birth. They had two prior IVF rounds at different facilities, and her partner’s sperm analysis was normal. She began with two Intrauterine Inseminations (IUI), both unsuccessful. She received a positive result, which resulted in spontaneous abortion, so the couple moved through with the first IVF. Six mature oocytes were removed, five fertilised, and new two-day 5 embryos were transplanted. When she had a second IVF round, two day-4 embryos were transplanted, another six oocytes were harvested and fertilised, and a biochemical pregnancy resulted.
When she visited our facility (Assisting Nature), we decided to undergo PGT-A IVF and freeze every embryo. To perform NGS, we must first freeze the embryos before waiting for the results. The doctor recommended a lengthy agonist protocol, whereas we proposed a hysteroscopy. 5 of the six oocytes we obtained were fertilized, giving us five blastocysts for biopsy. We do the blastocyst, biopsy, and file. One eupl fertilised oid and four aneuploid embryos were discovered. Consequently, we successfully transplanted that single euploid embryo. A baby girl was born at 39 weeks.
What is PGS in IVF?
Preimplantation Genetic screening is a procedure used to deduce the chromosomal status of an embryo created through IVF. PGS is proposed for parents with no known genetic abnormalities and patients who meet the following requirements.
When is PGS Testing Done?
The following are the periods when PGS testing is done for both couples and individuals:
- Females who are above 38
- Couples who want to transfer just one embryo
- couples who want to choose the gender
- Couples who have experienced repeated miscarriages in the past
- couples with a history of unsuccessful IVF.
How does PGS Testing Work?
PGS is a multi-step process carried out by several specialists and laboratories. The first step takes up to 5 days when fertilised embryos are cultured. This part occurs at the fertility centre. The second step is referred to as Embryo Biopsy. On the 3rd or 5th day of embryo development, this is done.
- 1 or 2 cells are taken for examination during a biopsy on day 3.
- On day 5, Biopsy 3 to 6 cells are taken out for testing.
The embryo’s day five or day six cells have split into two types: the inner cell mass, which will become the fetus, and the placenta, which will become the placenta (trophectoderm).
This stage allows for removing more trophectoderm cells without threatening the embryo’s survival, making the test more reliable.
The test tubes containing the cells are shipped to an outside reference laboratory for examination after being filled with the biopsied cells. The cell analysis is carried out at a reference laboratory, and it often takes more than 24 hours before the findings are ready. Hence, vitrification is necessary.
Vitrification is a method in which the embryos are frozen using a rapid freeze method. The thawing of a frozen embryo is the last stage. In following cycles, the IVF treatment and the transfer of the embryo back into the uterus will take place, with this often being a single embryo with the normal PGS result.
How Long Does PGS Testing Take?
The PGS testing takes approximately ten days to complete.
A PGS Testing Timeline
- Step 1: Stimulation and Egg Retrieval Step 2: Embryo Development
- Step 3: Trophectoderm Biopsy
- Step 4: DNA
- Step 5: DNA Quantification
- Step 6: Results
- Step 7: Embryo transfer and Synchrony
Embryo Grading And PGS Testing
During IVF therapy, embryologists and doctors use embryo grading to identify which embryos to transfer, the best day for transfer, and the right quantity of embryos to transfer.
What Percentage Of Embryos Pass PGS Testing?
60-70 percent success rate. However, this is on a transfer basis, meaning that if you start a cycle, retrieve eggs, produce embryos, perform a PGS testing, and at least an origin returns regular, 60%-70% of the time, it will lead to live birth.
PGS Testing After Embryos Are Frozen
Because of the many benefits of PGS testing, individuals still inquire if PGS testing can be done on frozen embryos. Fortunately, PGS is still completely achievable for frozen embryos and can improve patients’ chances of having a healthy pregnancy and baby.
Does PGS Testing Damage Embryos?
The testing does not harm the embryo or unborn child. PGS screening eliminates embryos with mismatched chromosomes, raising safety and success rates. Fortunately, clinics can still perform these tests on frozen embryos as well.
PGS Tested Embryo Miscarriage Rate By Week
The chances of having a miscarriage were much reduced in women associated with age 37 when a PGS test was conducted.
PGS Tested Embryo Failed To Implant
The three main categories of PGS-tested embryos that did not implant are embryonic, uterine, and systemic.
Understanding PGS Test Results
PGS checks for chromosome location anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) and others.
What Does PGS Test For?
Even when there is no confirmed proof of a genetic defect in either parent, PGS is employed as a prophylactic step to find chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo.
Pgs Testing And Twins
According to research, there is more monozygotic twinning when embryos are sampled for preimplantation genetic testing at the blastocyst stage.
PGS Testing Balanced Translocation
PGS can also detect translocations. When a person’s chromosomes are rearranged, a defect results. Without displaying symptoms, a person can be a carrier for balanced translations.
PGS Testing For Gender
PGS testing can also be used to determine a child’s gender. Using PGS, fertility doctors by examining if an embryo has two X chromosomes (indicating a female embryo) or an X and a Y chromosome (meaning a male embryo) (male). A baby’s gender may be correctly predicted from this.
PGS Testing Results By Age
33% to 50% of embryos screened in women aged 18-48 years old are aneuploid, and the number and percentage of euploid embryos decrease with maternal age. PGS Testing Under 35/30 Women under age 35 usually has lesser chances of having eggs with abnormal chromosomes. Therefore, PGS testing may not be required for IVF success.
Can PGS Testing Be Wrong?
In a few cases, PGS testing results can be wrong. Regardless of the PGS’s positive outcome, the newborn has an additional or missing chromosome.
How Accurate Is PGS Testing?
PGS is a highly developed technology with an accuracy rate of 97 percent.
PGS Testing Came Back Inconclusive
In a PGS test, an inconclusive result indicates that the genetic testing facility could not acquire a definite result from the embryo culture. This happens in about 2% of embryos and doesn’t always indicate an issue with the embryo. The primary problem is the limitation of examining a small sample of genetic material.
Should I Go for PGS Testing Before IVF?
They are going for a PGS test before IVF is not compulsory. However, it increases the chances of a successful IVF rate for specific sets of persons as you can screen viable embryos before the embryo transfer procedure. For women who are age 35 or less, getting a PGS done before an IVF is unnecessary as they don’t have the risk of aneuploids. Also, couples with genetic risk factors are aware of multiple miscarriages. Getting PGS done is a good step in the right direction.
Advantages of PGS Testing
Enhanced Embryo Selection
PGS aims to increase the chances that the selected embryo will lead to a successful and healthy child conception. It decreases the risk of miscarriage, shortens the gestational period, and lessens the requirement for transferring several embryos.
PGS gives the chance to see each embryo’s sex chromosome and transfers the embryo of the desired gender. This is also known as family balancing or planning.
Prevent Unknown Genetic Abnormalities From Transmission
PGS examines the number and location of chromosomes to look for abnormalities. The fertility specialist can select the genetically normal chromosomes and rule out the ones that would prevent a healthy birth even though it appears high quality before screenings.
PGS Testing Risks Or Side Effects
PGS is a safe procedure with less than a 1% risk of damage to an embryo during the cell significant risk of PGS is that there will be no embryos deemed normal and suitable for transfer. Is PGS Testing Worth It? Yes, PGS testing is worth it as incredible excellent benefits aid the conception journey.
Does insurance cover PGS testing?
Once a doctor suggests genetic testing, many health insurance companies will pay for it. Different health insurance companies have other different policies regarding which tests are covered. However, before taking a test, one must enquire with the insurer regarding coverage.
PGS Testing vs CVS
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is similar to PGD. However, what makes the difference is that CVS is done before implementation. In CVC, cells are removed from the placenta by inserting a pregnant woman’s belly or a catheter through the cervix.
PGS Testing vs NIPT
NIPT is a maternal blood test to screen for fetal chromosomes beginning at nine weeks of pregnancy. Usually, a test for Down Syndrome and aneuploids uses samples at around nine weeks gestation.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Does PGS Testing Prevent Miscarriage?
Yes, it does. In women under 35, the miscarriage rate dropped from 90% to 23% after PGS. While in women older than 35 years, miscarriage reduced from 86% to 12%.
- What percentage of embryos pass PGS testing?
60% to 70% Rate.
- Can PGS Detect Down Syndrome?
Yes, it can. Most women favour PGS for Down Syndrome Screening even though it is not 100% sensitive. However, its pregnancy chances are its advantage and lower sensitivity to down syndrome.
- Can A PGS Tested Embryo Have Autism?
No, a PGS-tested embryo cannot have autism. This is because lots of genes, along with environmental factors, may have the underlying factor. Estimated 100 genes have close ties with autism, but no single gene leads to autism once it is mutated.
- What Causes Abnormal Chromosomes?
Chromosome abnormalities often occur due to one or more of the following: Errors during the dividing of sex cells(meiosis), Errors during the dividing of other cells(mitosis), and Exposure to substances that cause congenital disabilities (tetragon).
- Do “Designer Babies” Result From Genetic Testing?
It does. These children were born from in-vitro fertilisation embryos. And chosen to impact the features the offspring would possess by introducing particular genes, either present or absent, into preimplantation embryos.